Soyer.   Alexis Benoit    
The Pantropheon
OR, HISTORY OF FOOD, And its Preparation, FROM THE EARLIEST AGES OF THE WORLD. BY A. SOYER, AUTHOR OF " The Gastronomic Regenerator" and the " Modern Housewife, or Menagere, " &c. EMBELLISHED WITH FORTY-TWO STEEL PLATES, ILLUSTRATING THE GREATEST GASTRONOMIC MARVELS OF ANTIQUITY. LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, &CO., STATIONERS' HALL COURT. MDCCCLIII. The Author reserves his right of Translating this Work.
FIRST & SOLE EDITION of 1853. 8vo. Frontispiece of Soyer. Title Page with some gilt lettering and gilt borders. (vii-xvi) Contents. [1-3] 4-474. p1. 'Advertisements' p1. 'Authors Note' 1 fep. 39 full page plus 2 double page Illustrations. The pastedown and end-papers are marbled. Bound in dark brown half calf with marble boards. Spine with raised bands, blind tooled square compartments, gilt lettering directly onto the spine. Very clean internally however very slight foxing, particularly to p.406-407. Overall a very nice copy of a very scarce book.
- There are serious doubts about the true author of 'The Panthropheon.' In Petits Propos Culinaires Vol: 29, p18. the late Mike McKirdy (a very knowledgeable antiquarian cookery book dealer, and co-owner with his wife Tess of 'Cooks Books') puts forward a compelling case for Adolphe Duhart-Fauvet to be awarded posthumous credit as the author. In the online Food Encyclopedia 'Practically Edible' it states -- "The Pantropheon is credited to Alexis, but it was in fact mostly written by a M. Adolphe Duhart-Fauvet. Soyer allowed his name to be used as the author, though he wrote only the last chapter." Mike McKirdy rightly suggests, Soyer's reputation does not rest alone on the Pantropheon, but due to his numerous and varied activities by which his huge fame grew, it is an interesting sidenote.

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Information

Antiquarian category
ref number: 10955

Soyer.   Aleis Benoit     - Signed by Soyer.
The Modern Housewife
OR MENAGERE. COMPRISING NEARLY ONE THOUSAND RECEIPTS FOR THE ECONOMIC AND JUDICIOUS PREPARATION OF EVERY MEAL OF THE DAY, AND THOSE FOR THE NURESERY AND SICK ROOM; WITH MINUTE DIRECTIONS FOR FAMILY MANAGEMENT IN ALL ITS BRANCHES. Illustrated with Engravings, INCLUDING THE MODERN HOUSEWIFE’S UNIQIUE KITCHEN, AND MAGIC STOVE. BY ALEXIS SOYER, AUTHOR OF “THE GASTRONOMIC REGNERATOR,” (REFORM CLUB.) EIGHTEENTH THOUSAND. LONDON; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL., & CO., STATIONERS’ HALL COURT; OLLIVIER, PALL MALL. 1850.
8vo. 1 modern fep. 2nd yellow coloured fep with Soyer’s signature. [1] Frontispiece, with a very light water-stain not affecting anything. Title page. The 3 pages have a small burn on the outer edge. ½” long 1/8” does deep not affect the text. Verso has a small introduction. A one page illustration of “The fair daughter of Albion”. [1] (1)iv-vi to Eloise. (1)vii Contents. (1)x-FBI Introduction. (1)2-427. [1] (1)430-445 Index. [1] )1_448-456 Press opinions. 2p Advertisements. 1 fep. A handsome full modern black calf binding with blind tooling on the boards. The spine with raised bands, blind tooling on bands and compartments. Apart from the very small burn mark on the first few pages this is a very clean desirable copy with the dedication signed in Soyer's shaky hand stating, "Presented by the author to his friend J.H. Nightingale - A. Soyer".
- I have researched the family background of his famous nurse and compatriot from the hospitals at Scutari - Florence Nightingale. I could not find anyone with the same name nor initials Soyer dedicated this book to - Intriguing!. This copy was published approx. one year after the first edition of 1849. Although Soyer was an extreme extrovert with an unrivalled penchant for self-publicity, signed copies of his numerous published cookery books seem to be quite scarce. The complexity of Soyer’s character and personality are well recorded. His professional undertakings were staggering and surprisingly varied, from the re-design of the Reform Kitchens to his much heralded efforts in Ireland during the famine, the crucial re-organisation of the hospital kitchens during the Crimean war that un-questionably saved many lives, and his many inventions - one still current in the 1990’s. His famously flamboyant but financially disastrous restaurant at the Great Exhibition and his marriage to Emma Jones the Victorian artist elevated his already significant stature. Designing a mobile cooking carriage for the army at the time of his death at 48 years old, one is amazed so much was packed into such a relatively short space of time. Truly, a memorable character and a remarkable life that is still being written about today.

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Information

Antiquarian category
ref number: 11167

Soyer.   Alexis Benoit    
The Gastronomic Regenerator
THE Gastronomic Regenerator: A SIMPLIFIED AND ENTIRELY NEW SYSTEM OF COOKERY, WITH NEARLY TWO THOUSAND PRACTICAL RECEIPTS SUITED TO THE INCOME OF ALL CLASSES. ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND CORRECT AND MINUTE PLANS HOW KITCHENS OF EVERY SIZE, FROM THE KITCHEN OF A ROYAL PALACE TO THAT OF THE HUMBLE COTTAGE, ARE TO BE CONSTRUCTED AND FURNISHED. BY MONSIEUR A. SOYER, OF THE REFORM CLUB. FOURTH EDITION. LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, &CO., STATIONERS' HALL COURT: AND SOLD BY JOHN OLLIVIER, PALL-MALL. 1847.
8vo. Pp. Frontispiece of 'Soyer' Title Page. Engraved picture of 'Heaven and Hell' 2pp 'List of Patrons' (i-xl) (1-720) (several engraved pictures throughout) 17pp 'Table of Contents' 1pp 'Advertisements' 24pp 'Madame Soyer' 1pp 'Times review. 2 fep. Bound in green half calf with dark green pebbled cloth boards and calf corners. Spine with elaborate gilt and blind tooling, gilt lettering, raised bands and a brown label with "Soyers Cookery" in gilt lettering. Internally very clean however some slight foxing on fep before title page and on frontispiece. A very good copy of a fairly scarce book.
- The illustrations are: The frontis drawn by Emma Soyer and engraved in steel by H.B. Hall and fifeteen wood engraved plates, two folding, including six plates illustrating elaborate dishes, and others showing the famous drawing of the Reform Club Kitchen, a table of a weathy family, Soyer's table at home, a drawing of two Bavarians by Emma Soyer and a self-portrait of Emma Soyer engraved in steel by H.B. Hall. There is also a folding plate on blue paper that is one of Soyer’s menus for a very special banquet at the Reform Club on July 3rd 1846 for 150 couverts that included the guest of honour - His Highness Ibrahim Pasha. It consisted of a massive 46 courses and on a spit in the dining room was a huge roasting Baron of Beef ala Anglaise. The dinner was a highlight of the Amir’s London visit. Four months earlier on March 22nd 1846, Ibrahim Pasha - His Highness, The Amir of Trans-Jordan came to London to sign a treaty with His Majesty The King in respect of the United Kingdom recognising the status of Trans- Jordan as a sovereign independent State. The menu was not in the first edition of 1846 but was in subsequent editions including this one here.

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Information

Antiquarian category
ref number: 10941

Soyer.   Alexis Benoit     - A very rare signed first edition.
The Gastronomic Regenerator.
A SIMPLIFIED AND ENTIRELY NEW SYSTEM OF COOKERY, WITH NEARLY TWO THOUSAND PRACTICAL RECEIPTS SUITED TO THE INCOME OF ALL CLASSES. ILLUSTRATED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS AND CORRECT AND MINUTE PLANS HOW KITCHENS OF EVERY SIZE, FORM THE KITCHEN OF A ROYAL PALACE TO THAT OF THE HUMBLE COTTAGE, ARE TO EB CONSTRUCTED AND FURNISHED. BY MONSIEUR A. SOYER, OF THE REFORM CLUB. LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., STATIONERS' HALL COURT: AND SOLD BY JOHN OLLIVIER, PALL-MALL. 1846.
233x153x64mm. Front paste-down with the bookplate of Bannerman of Elsick – Crimonmogate (one of the oldest Scottish families from Buchan). 1 new fep . Signed on the original yellow end-paper, laid down and bound in: 'To Mrs S.G. Harding with the Auteur Compliments A. Soyer'. [1] Verso frontispiece portrait of the author drawn by his wife Emma Soyer and engraved in steel by H.B. Hall. Title page. [1] 1p Dedication to the Duke of Cambridge. [1] 1p Engraved plate. [1]2p List of Patrons. (1)viii Preface. (1)x-xii Description of the work. (1)xiv-xx Soyer’s new mode of carving. xxi-xxiv How everything should be in cooking. 1-720.3 [1] (1)2-18 Table of contents. (1)2-6 Madame Soyer including a self-portrait of Emma Soyer engraved in steel by H.B.Steel. In total there are 16 wood engraved plates. Also included, the Kitchen of the Reform Club, a table of a wealthy family, Soyer’s table at home. Folded plates of ‘Young Bavarians’ by Emma Soyer, a dinner for His Highness Ibrahim Pacha on blue paper and an engraving of the Reform Club's new kitchens. Fully bound in the original rose coloured cloth with fine blind tooling back and front. The spine has been very sympathetically re-laid. Gilt lettering on the front board and spine. There is a small 1” long ink stain. The frontis of Soyer and Emma Soyer plates are slightly foxed. Otherwise internally very clean. Overall a very good copy in the original state and with the rare signature.
- In an online article Michael Garval, North Carolina State University writes perceptively of Alexis Soyer: --- Perhaps the most extraordinary thing about the extraordinary Alexis Soyer is that, while he too fashioned himself a man of letters, he would also transcend the constraints of this literary model and, far ahead of his time, prefigure the flamboyant personas of today's celebrity chefs. Soyer was born in France and raised there, first in Meaux-en-Brie, then in Paris. During the Revolution of 1830, he was working in the kitchen at the Foreign Office, it was attacked by angry insurgents. He ended up singing for his life: The cooks were driven from the palace, and in the flight two of Soyer's confrères were shot before his eyes, and he himself only escaped through his presence of mind, in beginning to sing 'la Marseillaise' et 'la Parisienne;' when he was in consequence carried off amid the cheers of the mob. (The memoirs of Volant and Warren - Soyer’s secretaries.) Soyer soon fled to England, where he would make his reputation, notably as Chef de Cuisine of London's prestigious Reform Club from 1837 to 1850. But his close call during the July Revolution remains an oddly revealing point of departure for his later, successful career. Casting him in the suggestive role of the faux-revolutionary, it already offers a glimpse at his general propensity for theatrics; his talent for rallying the public, and for making the most of unlikely opportunities; as well as his ambivalent class status and loyalty. A modestly-born opportunist, slaving away in service to the upper crust, and belting out Rouget de Lisle's or Casimir Delavigne's rabble-rousing lyrics at gunpoint, he appears at once a man of the people and lackey of the elite. Soyer was, in so many ways, a study in contradictions, "who drew the breath of his being from the French Romantics and who won the respect of Victorian England for his practical resourcefulness and powers of administration" (Helen Morris). He served refined food to the rich and powerful, and strained to ingratiate himself to them as well. But, amid the social and intellectual ferment over the problem of poverty, in the years surrounding the Revolution of 1848, he also put his skills to more humanitarian and egalitarian use. He toiled to feed Ireland's poor in the 1840s, or starving British soldiers in the Crimea a decade later, and published invaluable information to help the needy better feed themselves: first in a booklet, ‘The Poor Man's Regenerator’ (1847), from each copy of which he gave a penny to the poor; then more extensively in his ‘Shilling Cookery for the People’ (1854). A versatile, compassionate, and inventive cook, he was a prolific inventor as well—of bottled sauces and drinks, culinary gadgetry of all sorts, numerous innovations in the Reform Club's celebrated new kitchens, and many other things, including an excellent field stove, a variant of which, still called the Soyer stove, was used by the British army through the first Gulf War. Soyer was known for his exuberance, and eccentric style. A wit, prankster, raconteur, fine singer—and not just of revolutionary ballads—his first ambition was to be a comic actor, and for much of his life he frequented theatres and theatrical performers. A dapper Frenchman among drabber Victorians, he dressed as a Romantic dandy, in a style no longer the height of fashion at the height of his career in the 1840s and 50s—and did so even in the kitchen, eschewing the conventional chef's uniform. Beyond their rich embroidery, lavish silks, and extravagant colors, Soyer's clothes were characterized by their insistent cut on a bias, "à la zoug-zoug" in his own coinage, an idiosyncratic rendering of "zig-zag," the English phrase itself taking on the gallic flair of its inventor. Indeed, this predilection for diagonal lines was not limited to clothing designed and worn ‘studiously awry’, but rather part of a broader pattern. As biographer Helen Morris notes -- “Soyer's desire to be noticed, to be admired, above all to be extraordinary, grew ever more dominant. He tried not only to cook differently from everyone else, but to dress and talk and walk differently too. . . . he would not wear a single garment with either horizontal or perpendicular lines. His hats were specially built so that when clapped on at any angle they slanted in a coquettish way—in his own phrase, à la zoug-zoug. His coats had to be cut on the cross . . . . His visiting card . . . was not a rectangle but a parallelogram; so was his cigar-case, and even the handle of his cane slanted obliquely”. To this list could be added many things: advertisements for Soyer's products, like these for his Sultana's Sauce, one with the central bottle tilted diagonally through the copy, the other with the copy inside a parallelogrammic field recalling the shape of his carte de visite; a whimsical dish created in honor of the ballerina Fanny Cerrito with whispy diagonals spiraling round a conical base, surmounted by a dancing figurine on pointe atop a thunderbolt-like stand composed of alternating angles; "a zig-zag passage," which Morris calls a "true Soyer touch" leading into the model soup kitchen that Soyer designed in Dublin; his fanciful menu for a "Grand Supper Lucullusien "a'la Zoug-Zoug" (Volant and Warren); and, as we shall see, numerous diagonal elements in the portraits of Soyer that accompany his published work. As such varied examples suggest, à la zoug-zoug might best be understood as the central trope in Soyer's creative imagination, and in his dandified public persona, emblematic of his drive to distinguish himself —both to achieve distinction, and to do so by being different. • Soyer's position as chef of the Reform Club secured him some prominence but, in itself, does not explain the magnitude of his fame. His constant letters to various London papers, particularly the Times—touting his own accomplishments, promoting his latest schemes, weighing in on the questions of the day—helped keep him in the public eye. So too did the extensive marketing of his products, notably "Soyer's Sauce" as well as his several successful books on food and cookery. Combined with his flamboyant personal style, these forms of exposure made Soyer a favorite target of popular satire which, for better or worse, only increased his renown. He figured more often in the pages of Punch than many a Cabinet Minister.

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Information

Antiquarian category
ref number: 11155

Soyer.   Elizabeth Emma [nee Jones]     - Drawn by the artist when she was fifteen
An Original Drawing.
Exquisite black crayon period portrait of an old man seated. Wearing a peaked cap, high necked waistcoat, small knotted neckerchief and a jacket with wide lapels. Identity of the sitter unknown. Signed by Emma Jones and dated 1828.
Actual Drawings - 7.5"x 9" = 190 x 228mm. Frame - 11.5 "x13" = 292 x 330mm. Sympathetically mounted on a dark green/grey cardboard backing with glass fronted, gold brushed frame. The edges of the paper slightly cracked but altogether nicely aged. Overall a very rare and handsome item.
- Elizabeth Emma Jones was born in London - 1813. In 1836 she married Alexis Benoist Soyer the famous Chef de Cuisine of the Reform Club, Pall Mall, London. She died on the 29th of August, 1842, aged twenty-nine. She showed talent from a very young age and first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1823, at barely ten years old. This highly accomplished artist focused on portraiture and studies of nature. Her works were popularised through engravings and she went on to exhibit at the Paris Salon from 1840-42. Her reputation in France stood higher than even her native country. She was regarded as unusual and precociously gifted. Her works were admired because they were said to have been marked by great vigour and breadth of light and shadow. This can be seen in the portrait on offer here. Astonishingly, it was completed when she was just fifteen years old and shows a great degree of artistic maturity. The famous portrait of her husband Alexis Soyer wearing his beret, (see below) is a stipple engraving by Henry Bryan Hall originally from a drawing by Emma. It is owned by the National Portrait Gallery. The first picture below is a self-portrait drawn by Emma.

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Information

Ephemera category
ref number: 11092

Stein.   Rick     - A signed copy.
Far Eastern Odyssey.
Rick Stein's Far Eastern Odyssey 150 new recipes evoking the flavours of the Far East. BBC BOOKS.
FIRST EDITION. 250x190mm. Paste-down and end-paper with a colourful map. [1] Half title with Stien's signature in a black felt-tip. Double page photograph frontis. 1p. 1p Contents. 1p Photograph of Stien. 5p Introduction. (6)18-307. 1p Photograph of ingredients. 309-314 Ingredients. 315-319(1) Equipment, Bibliography and Index. (1) End-paper and paste-down with a colourful map. D/W. Fully bound in black cardboard with black lettering on spine. Condition as new.
- Rick Stein is un-doubtably a great chef, cookery writer and entertaining TV food pundit. Very articulate and knowledgeable, he expresses a clear passion for fine cooking, produce and suppliers. His cooking is deceptively simple that belies long experience and an unusual ability to cook and serve his dishes as they should be, (most top chefs devote a high percentage of their efforts to presentation and fantasy, and the preciseness of the finished dish rarely allows the original product to show). Of all the others, the meals he produces on TV are the ones that I would most like to eat. He has produced eleven fine cookery books. This one on offer here is the result of his far eastern cookery odyssey on BBC TV. Very well done with good recipes, good detailed information and mouth-watering full page photographs. A very desirable item.

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Information

Modern category
ref number: 11170

Stuart-Wortley.   A. J.    
The Grouse
NATURAL HISTORY BY THE REV. H. A. MACPHERSON SHOOTING BY A. J. STUART-WORTLEY COOKERY BY GEORGE SAINTSBURY WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY A. J. STUART-WORTLEY AND A. THOBURN SECOND EDITION LONDON LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. AND NEW YORK: 15 EAST 16th STREET 1895 All rights reserved
12mo. Pp. Half Title. Frontispiece of 'Home Life' Title Page. (i-vi) 1pp 'Illustrations' (3-293) 2pp 'The Badminton Library' 24pp 'Longmans Classified Advertisements' Bound in red half calf with marble boards and calf corners. Blind tooled borders around boards. Spine with intricate gilt tooling and gilt lines. Also with green labels, gilt lettering and raised bands. Overall a very clean copy both inside and out.
- An interesting book to all lovers of finely cooked game; especially the king of game birds -- the Grouse.

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Information

Antiquarian category
ref number: 10957

TAVERNER PHILLIPS.   F.     - In fine original state.
A History of the Worshipful Company of Cooks, London.
Compiled by F. TAVERNER PHILLIPS, Citizen and Cook of London. Juxia medicinam esse coquorum officium simulantium et adulationem quartae particulae civilitatis. Quintilian’s translation of a quotation from Plato’s Gorgias. LONDON 1932 (the 450th anniversary of the Incorporation of the Cook’s company).
FIRST EDITION. 12mo. Inside front cover and fep with marbled paper. 1fep with inscription to C.Harold Ridge from the Compiler October 1946. Half title, Verso with printer's info. [1] Frontispiece of the Cooks’ Company Arms. Title page. [1] (1)viii Contents. 1p List of Illustrations. [1] (1) xii-xiii Preface. (1)xv Authors Forward. [1] (1)xviii-xi Introduction. [1] (1)2-191. [1] (1)104-207 Index. [1] 1fep. Inside back cover and fep with marbled paper. Original full red cloth binding with gilt text on spine and gilt armorial and text on front cover. Text block has original untrimmed pages. Considering its age, its in wonderful original condition.
- The Cook’s Guild of London is the oldest. This book was compiled and written by Taverner Phillips, who was also a cook. Including the frontispiece there are 13 Illustrations showing everything to do with the Cooks’ Company, its cups, badges and silverware, to a complete list past Masters and Wardens, and a very comprehensive history dating from its first mention in Deed Pole – May 21st 1500. The Roll of the Cooks’ Company however goes back to 1309-1312 when mention of Cooks’ redemptions have been extracted from the Letter Book D at the Guildhall, London. After the incorporation of the Cooks’ Company the earliest extant list to be found, is in a manuscript volume in the Public Record Office (Chapter House Books, Vol.93) under the heading of ‘Pastelers’. The title page of the volume is inscribed ‘The Companyes of all the Craftes or Mysteries of London’. Although undated, it was compiled in 1538. This is a fascinating book. It should be a part of the curriculum of all Catering colleges. An enlarged later edition was compiled and published in 1982. See item - ref:# 11112, on this site.

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Information

Modern category
ref number: 11222

Thrupp.   Sylvia     - A fine historical study.
A Short History of the Worshipful Company of Bakers of London
Half Title with the Worshipful Company of Baker's Crest.
FIRST EDITION 1933. 153x232mm. 2feps. Half title of Baker’s crest. [1] Title page. [1] v-vii Forward. [1] ix Author’s Preface. [1] xi Contents. [1] xiii Illustrations. [1] 1-170. 1p Photograph. [1] 171-172 Supplementary Notes. Photograph. [1] 173-176 List of Company Records. 177-182 List of Company Masters. p183 List of Company Clerks. 184-187 List of Benefactors. 188-189 List of the Company Livery. 190-201 Chapter Notes. 202-207 Index. 9p Decorative Scenes. 1fep. Twenty three pages of photographs and decorative scenes all with tissue guards. Red quarter calf binding with green cloth boards with bright gilt tooling on front board and spine (photo 1 below). Excellent condition externally and internally.
- During the year 1931-2, Frederick Abraham Mostyn became the Master of the Guild or Mistery of Bakers. He undertook the restoring and re-decorating the ancient Company Hall after fifty years of neglect. As the Baker’s Company is one of the oldest and most venerable of the London livery companies, Mostyn also decided to put on record for the first time the history of the Company from its foundation. The earliest reference to the bakers is at the beginning of the reign of Henry II. The baker’s charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth I in1569. (photo 2 below) Mostyn approached Miss Sylvia Thrupp, M.A., Ph.D., of the London School of Economics. She had, circa. 1930 published an essay on ‘The Grocers of London’, a study that dealt with English Trade in the fifteenth century. She agreed to Mostyn’s request, although much of the history of ‘The Company of Bakers’ lay hidden in documents couched in mediaeval Latin and French scripts. Failing precise and trustworthy accounts of the origins of mediaeval craftsmen’s gilds, two of the main theories is, one, compounding for tolls and taxes, and two, the right vested in gild officers to supervise and govern the trade to which they were connected. From this historical basis Sylvia Thrupp starts, and takes the reader through a very interesting tour of the growth of the Company of Bakers up to 1933, the date of Mostyn’s forward at the beginning of the book. The list of company Masters on page 177 begins with John Jenyns who was in office from 1481-1489. This is not only the story of the bakers, but Thrupp has skilfully weaved in other significant livery companies of London. This allows us to see the Baker’s Company in the proper historical context of other venerable crafts. A wonderful book; Moyston chose his historical author well.

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Information

Modern category
ref number: 11097

Toklas   Alice B.     - with the famous 'Haschich Fudge' recipe.
The Cook Book
ILLUSTRATIONS BY SIR FRANCIS ROSE. (Printers device of a mermaid) London. MICHAEL JOSEPH
FIRST ENGLISH EDITION. 1954. 8vo. Illustrated cartographic paste-down and end-paper. [1] Half title. [2] Frontispiece drawing of Toklas. Title page. Printers info. page. 1p Contents. [1] ix-xi A Word with Cook. [1] (2)3-280. (2)283-288 Index of Recipes. 2fep. [1] Illustrated cartographic end-paper and paste-down. Cream coloured cloth boards. Spine with gilt and green cloth label. Unclipped D/J and lightly browned spine and lightly stained, browned and chipped at edges. With publisher's slip and review notes on reverse by cookery book writer Robin McDouall. Illustrated throughout by Francis Rose. Internally very good.
- Alice Babette Toklas was born in San Francisco, California into a middle-class Jewish family and attended schools in both San Francisco and Seattle. For a short time she also studied music at the University of Washington. She went to Paris and met Gertrude Stein an American writer, on September 8, 1907 on the first day that she arrived. Together they hosted a famous salon at 27 rue de Fleurus that attracted expatriate American writers, such as Ernest Hemingway, Paul Bowles, Thornton Wilder and Sherwood Anderson, and avant-garde painters, including Picasso, Matisse and Braque. Acting as Stein's confidante, lover, cook, secretary, muse, editor, critic, and general organizer, Toklas remained a background figure, chiefly living in the shadow of Stein, until Stein published her memoirs in 1933 under the teasing title The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. It became Stein's bestselling book. The two were a couple until Gertrude Stein's death in 1946. Toklas then published her own literary memoir, this 1954 book that mixed reminiscences and recipes. The most famous recipe therein (actually contributed by her friend Brion Gysin) is called "Haschich Fudge", a mixture of fruit, nuts, spices, and ‘canibus [sic] sativa’, or marijuana. Her name was later lent to the range of cannabis concoctions called Alice B. Toklas brownies. Some believe that the slang term toke, meaning to inhale marijuana, is derived from her last name. The cookbook has not been out of print since it was first published, and has been translated into numerous languages, most recently into Norwegian in 2007. A second cookbook followed in 1958 called Aromas and Flavors of Past and Present. She also wrote articles for several magazines and newspapers including The New Republic and the New York Times. In 1963 she published her autobiography, What Is Remembered, which abruptly ends with Stein's death, leaving little doubt that Stein was the love of her lifetime. Her later years were very difficult because of poor health and financial problems, aggravated by the fact that Stein's heirs took the priceless paintings (some of them Picassos), which had been left to her by Stein. Toklas also became a Roman Catholic convert in her old age, as she had been told by a priest that in that way she may possibly meet Stein again in the afterlife. She died in poverty at the age of 89, and is buried next to Stein in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris, France; Toklas' name is engraved on the back of Stein's headstone.

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Information

Modern category
ref number: 11098